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Tz'utujil is from the larger branch of Quichean Mayan languages:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Mayan_Language_Tree_in_colour.png

The Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala (ALMG) is the best source for information about the Mayan languages.

For a great (and free!) Spanish dictionary (online or downloadable), check out FREELANG.

 

Basic Tz'utujil

PDF Version

 

Introduction

This is a short document that translates common words and phrases between Tz置tujil, Spanish, and English.  Should you have an opportunity to visit the Western shores of Lake Atitl疣, you値l find that the local Tz置tujil really appreciate foreigners who try to learn a bit about their culture and language.  The following material relates most specifically to the Tz置tujil spoken in San Pedro La Laguna.  There is substantial variation in Tz置tujil so this document can serve merely as an introduction.

Este es un breve documento que traduce palabras y frases communes entre Tz置tujil, Espaol, e Ingl駸Si tendria la oportunidad a visitar las orillas occidentales del Lago de Atitl疣, encontraras que los Tz置tujiles estiman los extranjeros quienes tratan aprender un poco sobre su cultura e idioma.

 

Pronunciation

Tz置tujil [dz- oot oo hēēl] has a number of tricky sounds which one does not commonly hear in the Romance or Germanic languages.  After each Tz置tujil word and phrase below I have indicated a rough guide to pronunciation using English sounds and words (where possible).  After each English word or phrase below I have indicated a rough guide to pronunciation using Spanish sounds.  Spaces in these pronunciation guides indicate syllables.  The only novel mark I致e had to create is the sign - to indicate the glottal pause that is so common in Tz置tujil.  For English speakers, it is something akin to the open-mouthed gasp one utters after hearing something shocking (what!!?? uh-).  Below, I note the Tz置tujil word followed by a pronunciation guide followed by the Spanish translation followed by the English translation.

 

Despu駸 de cada traduccin en Ingl駸, he dado una approximacin cruda de los sonidos de las palabras en Ingl駸.

 

Phrases (Frases)

 

         Utz aawach? [ootz ah watch]  /  Utz, maltiyoox.  [ootz mall tēē yōsh]   Ja ka atet?  [ha kaw atet]  /  Utz chaqajaa, maltiyoox.  [ootz chalk ah hah-, mall tēē yōsh] = como est疽? / bien, gracias.  y tu? / estoy bien tambien, gracias = how are you? / fine, thanks.  how are you? / I知 fine also, thanks [how ar yuu / fayn, thanks.  how ar yuu / Ay知 fayn alsōō, thanks]

         Utz k誕ari/utz nak誕/je弾e [ootz k- aw ree-/oots knock- aw/hay āā] = est bien = fine, sounds good, okay [fayn, sowndz gud, ōh kāā]

         Naq aab段i [knock awb- ēē-] = como te llamas? = what痴 your name? [wats yuur nāām]

         Naq ab誕noon [knock ob- on own] = cmo est疽? = how are you doing? [how ar yuu duu ing]

         Naq naab誕n [knock knob- on] = que haces? = what are you doing? [wat ar yuu duu ing]

         Naq k誕 [knock k- aw] = quien es, que es = who is it, what is it [huu is it, wat is it]

         Jaru ajuunaa [ha roo- ah hoon gnaw-] = cuantos aos tiene? = how old are you? [how ōōld ar yuu]

         Jaru rajil? [ha roo- raw hēēl] = cuanto cuesta? = how much is it? [how much is it]

         Jaru nuuk誕as [ha roo- new k- aws] = cuanto debo? = how much do I owe you? [how much duu ay ōō yuu]

         Jar atet k誕 naq chi saamaajiil naab誕n [har aw tet k- aw knock chēē sawm ah hēēl knob- on] = t, que trabajo haces? = what kind of work do you do? [wat kaynd of wurk duu yuu duu]

         。Jo! [hō- ] = vamos! = let痴 go! [letz gōō]

         B誕ar at petinaq wi? [b- are ought pet ēē knock wē-] = de donde viene? = where are you from? [wer ar yuu from]

         Kinakuyu/cha nuumak [key naw koo you-/chaw new mock] = perdoname = excuse me [eks kuus mee]

         Ninb弾 pa kayib誕l [nēēn bay pa ki yēē ball] = voy al mercado = I am (I知) going to the market [ay知 gōō ing to tha market]

         。Tachajij aawii! [tawch aw hēē ah wēē] = 。Cuida te! = Be careful! [bēē cair ful]

         Q段la chik na [k- ey law- chēēk gnaw] =。Nos Vemos! = see you later! [see yuu lāātur]

         。Xtiqaatz誕t chik na qii! [shtēē cawtz- ought chēē gnaw key-] = 。Nos Vemos! = See you later! [sēē yuu lāāt ur]

         K弛/K弛oli jun [k-ōh/ k-ōh lee hoon] = hay un/a = there is a(n) [ther is aa(an)]

         Taya誕 [tie yaw- ah-] = da me = give me [giv mēē]

         Tab誕na jun utziil [tawb- awn aw- hoon ootz ēēl] = h疊ame un favor = do me a favor [do mēē ā fāv ur]

         Maltiyoox [mall tēē yōsh] = gracias = thank you (thanks) [thank yuu (thanks)]

         Sib誕laj maltiyoox [seeb- all ah mall tēē yōsh] = muchas gracias = thank you very much (thanks very much) [thank yuu ver ēē much (thanks ver  ēē much)]

         Jee [hay綻 = es (afirmacin) = yeah (affirmation) [yeh]

         Ma [maw] = no (negacin) = no (negation) [nōō]

         Kan [kawn] = si = yes [yes]

         Ma kan ta [maw con taw] = no = no [nōō]

         Ma k弛 ta [maw k- ōh taw] = no hay = there is not [ther is not]

 

Interrogatives (Interrogativos)

 

         B誕ar chi ri (tri) [b- are trēē] = dnde, adnde = where [wer]

         B誕jan [b- a hawn] = cu疣do = when [wen]

         Jaru [ha roo-] = cu疣to = how much [how much]

         Jani [ha nēē-] = cmo = how [how]

         Naq [knock] = qu, qui駭 = what, who [wat, hoo]

         Naq chi re (tre) [knock tray] = por qu = why [way]

 

Nouns (Sustantivos)

 

         Aab誕j [ab aw] = piedra, roca = stone, rock [stōōn, rawk]

         Aachi [aw chēē] = hombre = man [man]

         Aaj [aah] = cana = cane stalk [kāān stawk]

         Achib誕l [awtch ēēb-all ] = imagen, foto = image, photo [im uj, fōtō]

         Achik [awtch ēēk-] = sueno = dream [drēēm]

         Aj段ik [aw- ēēk-] = sirvienta = servant [sur vant]

         Ajil [aw hēēl] = precio = price [priis]

         Ajk誕ay [awk- eye] = vendedor(a) = merchant [mur chant]

         Ajkeem [awk ēēm] = tejedora = weaver [wee vur]

         Ajpub/kinich [aw poob-/key nēētch] = el sol = sun [son]

         Ajtijaal [aw tēē hall] = escuela = school [skuul]

         Ak誕al [awk- all] = nio = boy [boy]

         Alaq弛om [all awk- oom] = ladrn = robber [rob ur]

         Alaxib誕l [all osh ēēb- all] = nacimiento = birth [burth]

         Aq弛om [awk- oom] = medicina = medicine [med is in]

         Atat [aw tot] = usted = you [yuu]

         At段x [aw tēēsh] = estornudo = sneeze [snēēz]

         Awan [ah wan] = milpa = cornfield [korn fēēld]

         B弾ey [b- ay] = camino = road [rōōd]

         Chaaj [chaw] = ceniza = ash [ash]

         Ch誕kat [cha cot] = silla = chair [cheyur]

         Ch誕katwi [ch- awk ot we] = almohada = pillow [pil ōō]

         Ch誕paq [ch- op awk] = jabn = soap [sōōp]

         Chee [chay-] = rbol = tree [tree]

         Chi ya [chēē yaw-] = playa = beach [bēēch]

         Ch段ich [ch- each-] = carro = car [kar]

         Ch段ich [ch- each-] = maquina = machine [mush ēēn]

         Ch段ich [ch- each-] = metal = metal [met ul]

         Chiij [chēēh] = algodn = cotton [kawt un]

         Ch置jarinaq [ch- oo hawr een awk] = loco = crazy person [krāā zēē pur son]

         Ch置umiil [ch- oo meal] = estrella = star [star]

         Ichaaj [ēē chaw] = hierba = plant [plant]

         Iik [ēēk] = chile = chile pepper [chi lēē pep ur]

         Iik [ēēk-] = luna, mes = moon, month [muun, munth]

         Iiq [ēē yik-] = viento = wind [wehnd]

         Ikaj [ēē kaw] = hacha = axe [aks]

         Iil majk [ēēl mawk] = pecado = sin [sin]

         Ilixik [ēēl eesh eek] = servicio = service [sur vis]

         Ixix [ēē sheesh] = ustedes = you (plural) [yuu]

         Ixoq [ēēsh oak] = mujer = woman [wum en]

         Ixtan [ēēsh tawn] = senorita = unmarried woman [un mar ēēd wum an]

         Iyaaj [ēē yaw] = las ninas = girls [gurls]

         Iyoom [ēē yōwm] = comadrona = midwife [mid wayf]

         Jaan [hawn] = mosca = fly [flay]

         Jar/Ja [hawr/haw] = el/la = the [tha]

         Juunaa [hoon gnaw-] = ao = year [yehr]

         Juyu [who you] = volcan = volcano [vol cāān ōō]

         Kaaj [kaw] = cielo = sky [skay]

         K誕as [k- aws] = deuda = debt [det]

         K誕jool [k- hole] = joven = young man [yung man]

         K誕mol b弾ey [k- awm ole b- ay] = gua = guide [gayd]

         K誕sleemaal [k- aws lem all] = vida = life [layf]

         Kooch [coach] = regalo = gift [gift]

         K置yaa [k- oo yaw-] = cerveza = beer [bēēyur]

         Maamaaj [mom ma] = nietos = grandsons [grand suns]

         Nimaq段ij [neem ock- ee] = fiesta = festival [fest iv ul]

         Okox [ō kōsh] = hongos = mushrooms [mush ruums]

         Oochooch/ Jaay [ō chōch/hi] = casa = house [hows]

         Palow [pall oaf] = mar = sea [see]

         Puluw [pool oof] = burbuja = bubble [bub ul]

         Puwaq [poo wock] = dinero = money [mun ēē]

         Q誕aq [q- awq-] = fuego = fire [fayr]

         Q誕niil /ija稚z [q- awn ēēl/ ēē haw- tz] = semilla = seed [sēēd]

         Raal [raw-] = su hijo(a) = son, daughter [sun / dawt ur]

         Riikiil [rēē kēēl] = comida = food [fuud]

         Ri男 [rēē-] = anciano, don = venerable one [ven ur ab ul wun]

         Ruuwach xaan [roo watch shkawn] = pared = wall [waul]

         Sanayii [sawn ayēē] = arena = sand [sand]

         Su鍛誕l [soo- b- all] = toalla = towel [tow ul]

         Taa [taw-] = anciano = old man [ōōld man]

         T段iso知 [t- ēēsō- m] = costura = sewing [sōō ing]

         Tijob誕l [tēē hōb- all] = escuela = school [skuul]

         Tijooneel [tēē hōan nāil] = maestro = teacher [tēēch ur]

         Tijoxeel [tēē hōe shāle] = estudiante = student [stuu dent]

         Tinamiit [tēēn aw meat] = pueblo = town [town]

         T段sib誕l [tēase ēēb- awl] = maqina de coser = sewing machine [sōō ing mush ēēn]

         T弛ot [t- ōwt-] = caracol = shell [shel]

         T置y [t- ēēh-] = olla = pot [pawt]

         Tz置uj [dz-ooh] = gota de lluvia = raindrop [rāān drawp]

         Tziij [dzēē] = palabra = word [wurd]

         Tziyaq [dzēē yawk] = ropa = clothes [clōōths]

         Uleew [oo lay oof] = tierra = land [land]

         Winaq [wē knock] = persona = person [purson]

         Xuk置k [shoe kook] = fresco = fresh [fresh]

         Ya [yaw-] = agua = water [wat ur]

         Yaawaa [yaw wah] = enfermo = sick [sik]

         Yaab段il [yawb- ēēl] = enfermedad = sickness, disease [sik nes, dis ēēs]

 

 

Bodies (Cuerpos)

-Rule: drop 紡aj suffix when used with possessive (e.g. nuupaam-mi estomago)

 

         Xamaliil [shawm ah lēēl] = cuerpo human = human body [hu mun bod ēē]

         Aaq [awk] = lengua = tongue [tung]

         Achoq誕aq [aw choke- awq-] = musculos = muscles [muss uls]

         Aqanaaj [awk on aw] = pie = foot [fut]

         Aqanaaj [awk on aw] = pierna = leg [lāg]

         Ch弾談aaj [ch- eh- kaw] = rodilla = knee [nēē]

         Chii誕aj [chēē- aw] = boca = mouth [mowth]

         Ch置談aaj [ch- ew- kaw] = codo = elbow [el bōh]

         Eeyaaj [ēē yah] = diente = tooth [tuth]

         Ismaal [is mahl] = pelo = hair [her]

         Ixkinaaj [ēēsh kēēn ah] = oreja = ear [ēēr]

         Palaj [pall off] = cara = face [fāās]

         Paamaaj [pawm ah] = estomago = stomach [stum uck]

         Poxaaj [pōsh aw] = costillas = ribs [ribs]

         Q誕b誕aj [k- ab- aah] = mano = hand [hand]

         Rwi aqanaaj [ ruh we awk on aw] = dedo = toe [tōh]

         Rwi q誕b誕aj [ ruh we k- ab- aah] = dedo = finger [feen gur]

         Tale談 [dz- ahm] = hombro = shoulder [shōl dur]

         Tz誕m [dz- ahm] = nariz = nose [nohs]

         Tz置umaal [dz- oom all] = piel = skin [sken]

         Wachaaj [watch ah] = ojo = eye [ay]

         Wi誕aj [we- ah] = cabeza = head [hed]

 

 

Families (Familias)

 

         Aal [awl] = hijo(a) = son [sun]

         Tee弾ej [tāy- āy] = madre = mother [muth ur]

         Tatixeel [tot ēē shell] = padre = father [fawth ur]

 

Food (Comida)

 

         Riikiil [rēē kēēl] = comida = food [fuud]

         Aj [aah] = elote = corn-on-the-cob [korn on tha kawb]

         Aranxax [are rawn shesh] = naranja = orange [or anj]

         Askol [ah skōl] = azucar = sugar [shug ur]

         Atz誕am [awtz- awm] = sal = salt [sawlt]

         Ch弛ob [ch- ōbe-] = pina = pineapple [piin ap ul]

         Iik [ēēk] = chile = chile pepper [chil ēē pep ur]

         Ixiim [ēēsh eēm] = maiz = corn [korn]

         Kaxlan way [kawsh lawn why] = pan = bread [bred]

         Mololon aq弛om [mole ole loan awk- ohm] = pimienta = pepper [pep ur]

         Ooj [ōōh] = aguacate = avocado[ah gwa ka teh]

         Raxamuuniil [rosh ahmoon ēēl] = fruta = fruit [fruut]

         Saqwach [sock watch] = papa = potato [pa tāāt ōōh]

         Saq置ul [sock- ool] = banana = banana [buh nan uh]

         Saqmooloo [sock mow low-] = huevo = egg [āāg]

         Tii段ij [tēē- ēē] = carne = meat [mēēt]

         Way [why] = tortilla = tortilla [tor tēē ya]

         Xanakat [shawn ah kawt] = cebolla = onion [ung yun]

         Ya [yaw-] = agua = water [wat ur]

 

Religion (Religin)

 

         Ajq段ij [awk- ēy] = sacerdote Maya = daykeeper, shaman [dāy kēēp ur , shāām un]

         Ajaaw [ah how] = Dios = God [gawd]

         Aj段itz [aw- eats] = brujo = witch [wich]

         Iitz [eats] = brujeria = witchcraft [wich kraft]

         K誕xtok [k- osh toke-] = diablo = devil [dev ul]

         K置遅 [k- oo- sh] = alma = soul [sool]

         Mookaaj [mōe kah] = grupos religiosos = sects [sekts]

         Nawaliil [nah wall ēēl] = creencias = beliefs [bel ēēfs]

         Tiyoox [tēē yōhsh] = santos = saints [sāānts]

         Xolob遅eel [show lobe- shell] = Espiritu Santo = Holy Spirit [hōōl ēē speer it]

         Xukuleem [shoe koo lay em] = Ceremonia Maya = Mayan fire ceremony [ser e mown ēē]

         Yuqub誕l k置遅 [you koob- all k- oosh] = f = faith [fāāth]

 

Animals (Animales)

 

         Chikop [chēē cop] = animal = animal [an im ul]

         Ak [ack-] = gallina = chicken [chik un]

         Am [awm] = araa = spider [spiid ur]

         Ch弛oy [ch- oi] = ratn = rat [rat]

         Ch置u [ch- oo-] = pescado = fish [fish]

         Jaan [hawn] = mosca = fly [flay]

         Juut [hoot] = gusano = worm [wurm]

         Keej [kēēyāāy] = caballo = horse [hors]

         Ko談 [kōō- k] = tortuga = turtle [tur tul]

         Kuuk [kook] = ardilla = squirrel [skwur ul]

         Mama [ma ma-] = gallo = rooster [roo stur]

         Mix [meesh] = gato = cat [kat]

         Paar [par] = zorro = fox [fawks]

         Sootz [sōōdz-] = murcielago = bat [bat]

         Tap [top] = cangrejo = crab [krab]

         Tix [tēēsh] = elephante = elephant [el ef unt]

         T置q [t- ook] = gallina = chicken [chik un]

         Tz段 [dz- ēē-] = perro = dog [dawg]

         Tz段kin [dz- eek ēēn] = pajaro = bird [burd]

         Umul [oo mool] = conejo = rabbit [rab it]

         Us [oos] = mosquito = mosquito [mosk ēēt ōō]

         Wajkax [waw kosh] = vaca = cow [kaw]

         Xijk [shik] = 疊uila = eagle [ēē gul]

 

Colors (Colores)

 

         Kaq [kawk] = rojo = red [red]

         Q誕n [k- an] = amarillo = yellow [yel ōō]

         Q誕q [k- awk] = negro = black [blak]

         Rax [rawsh] = verde = green [green]

         Saq [sock] = blanco = white [wiit]

         Xaar [shar] = azul = blue [bluu]

 

Numbers (Numeros)

 

         Ajilib誕l [aw hēēl ēēb- all] = numeracin = numbers [num burs]

         Jun [hoon] = uno = one [wun]

         Ka段 [kaw- ēēh] = dos = two [tuu]

         Oxi [ō she-] = tres = three [thrēē]

         Kaji [kaw he-] = cuatro = four [for]

         Jo弛o [hō- ōh] = cinco = five [fīīv]

         Waaqii [wah key-] = seis = six [siks]

         Wuuquu [woo koo-] = siete = seven [sev un]

         Waqxaquii [wock shock ēē-] = ocho = eight [āāt]

         B弾lejee [b- ell eh hāy-] = nueve = nine [niin]

         Lajuuj [law who] = diez = ten [ten]

         Junlajuuj [hoon law who] = once = eleven [el ev un]

         Kab値ajuuj [kawb- law who] = doce = twelve [twelv]

         Oxlajuuj [ōsh law who] = trece = thirteen [thur tēēn]

         Kajlajuuj [kaw law who] = catorce = fourteen [for tēēn]

         Jo値ajuuj [hō- law who] = quince = fifteen [fif tēēn]

         Waqlajuuj [wawk law who] = dieciseis = sixteen [siks tēēn]

         Wuqlajuuj [wook law who] = diecisiete = seventeen [sev en tēēn]

         Wajxaqlajuuj [waw shock law who] = dieciocho = eighteen [ā tēēn]

         B弾lejlajuuj [b- ail ay law who] = diecinueve = nineteen [nin tēēn]

         Winaq/k誕l [key knock/k-awl] = veinte = twenty [twen tēē]

 

Ordinal Numbers (Numeros Ordinales)

 

         Najb弾ey [nawb- āāy] = primero = first [furst]

         Ruukaab [rook awb] = segundo = second [second]

         Roox [rōsh] = tercero = third [thurd]

         Ruukaaj [rook aw] = cuarto = fourth [forth]

         Roo [row-] = quinto = fifth [fifth]

         Ruwaqaaq [roo wawk awk] = sexto = sixth [sixth]

         Ruwuuq [roo wook] = s駱timo = seventh [seventh]

         Ruwajxaaq [roo waw shock] = octavo = eighth [ā th]

         Rub弾leej [roob- ail ay] = noveno = ninth [nīnth]

         Lajuuj [law who] = d馗imo = tenth [tenth]

 

Verbs (Verbos)

 

         Ajo鍛弾eneem [aw hoe- b- en em] = querer = to want [tuu want]

         Ak誕xaaneem [ock- osh en em] = escuchar = to listen [tuu lis un]

         B弾enaam [b- āāy nam] = ir = to go [tuu gōō]

         B段inaq [b- ēēy knock] = decir = to say [tuu sāā]

         B段jneem [b- ēēy nem] = caminar = to walk [tuu wawk]

         B段xaaneem [b- ēēx aw nem] = cantar = to sing [tuu sing]

         Ch誕yooneem [ch- eye own em] = pegar = to adhere [tuu ad hey ur]

         Choyooneem [choy own em] = cortar = to cut [tuu kut]

         Chupuuneem [choop oon em] = apagar = to turn off [tuu turn awf]

         Jaqooneem [hawk own em] = abrir = to open [tuu ōōp en]

         Kab誕aneem [kawp- awn em] = callerse = to shut up [tuu shut up]

         Kamik [kaw meek] = morir = to die [tuu dii]

         K誕mooj [k-aw mōh] = traer = to bring [tuu bring]

         Kanooneem [kawn own em] = buscar = to look for [tuu luk for]

         K誕staaneem [k- ost awn em] = pasear = to walk, to wander [tuu wawk / tuu won dur]

         K段sooj [k- ey soh] = acabar = [tuu fin ish]

         Kotz弛leem [coats- oh lem] = acostar = to lie down, to go to sleep [tuu lii down / tuu gōō tuu sleep]

         Kuchuuneem [kooch oon em] = cubrir = to cover [tuu kuv ur]

         K置tuuneem [k- oot oon em] = pedir = to ask for [tuu ask for]

         Loq弛oneem [low k- own em] = comprar = to buy [tuu bii]

         Mesooj [mays oh] = barrer = to sweep [tuu swēēp]

         Mich弛oneem [mēēch- own em] = arrancar = to extract [tuu eks trakt]

         Ookeem [oak em] = entrar = to enter [tuu en tur]

         Oq弾ej [oak- eh] = llorar = to cry [tuu cray]

         Qajooj [ka hoe] = prestar = to lend [tuu lend]

         Q弾jtexik [k- ay taysh ik] = abrazar = to hug [tuu hug]

         Samaajiineem [saw maw hēēn em] = trabajar = to work [tuu wurk]

         Sik段ineem [sēēk- ēēn em] = leer = to read [tuu rēēd]

         Su置uneem [soo- ooh nem] = limpiar = to clean [tuu klēēn]

         Taqooj [tock hoe] = enviar = to send [tuu send]

         Ti男ooneem [tēē- hoe em] = ensenar = to teach [tuu tēēch]

         Tiko知iineem [tēēkoh- mean em] = sembrar = to sow [sōō]

         Tz段b誕aneem [dzēē -b- aw nem] = escuchar = to listen [tuu lis en]

         Tzijooneem [dzēē- hone em] = hablar = to speak [tuu spēēk]

         Tz置b置leem [dz- oob- ool em] = sentar = to sit [tuu sit]

         Wa段imeem [waw- ēēm em] = comer = to eat [tuu ēēt]

         Waraameem [wah rawm em] = dormir = to sleep [tuu slēēp]

         Xajooj [shaw hoe] = bailar = to dance [tuu dans]

         Ya弛oneem [yaw- own em] = dar = to give [tuu giv]

 

Verb Conjugations (Conjugaciones de verbos)

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninb弾 = voy = I go                              Xinb弾 = fui = I went                              Xkinb弾 na = ir = I will go

Natb弾 = vas = you go                          Xatb弾 = fuiste = you went             Xkatb弾 na = ir疽 = you will go

Nb弾 = va = he goes                                Xb弾 = fue = he went                           Xtib弾 na = ir = he will go

Noqb弾 = vamos = we go                     Xoqb弾 = fuimos = we went            Xkojb弾 na = iremos = we will go

Nixb弾 = van = you go                         Xixb弾 = fueron = you went            Xkixb弾 na = ir疣 = you will go

Neeb弾 = van = they go                        Xeeb弾 = fueron = they went           Xkeb弾 na = ir疣 = they will go

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninwa段 = como = I am eating             Xinwa段 = com = I ate                        Xkinwa na = comer = I will eat

Natwa段 = comes = you are eating       Xatwa段 = comiste = you ate         Xkatwa na = comer疽 = you will eat

Nwa段 = come = he is eating                   Xwa段 = comi = he ate                 Xtiwa na = comer = he will eat

Noqwa段 = comimos = we are eating   Xoqwa段 = comimos = we ate        Xkojwa na = comeremos = we will eat

Nixwa段 = comen = you are eating       Xixwa段 = comieron = you ate      Xkixwa na = comir疣 = you will eat

Newa段 = comen = they are eating       Xwa段 = comieron = they ate         Xkewa na = comir疣 = they will eat

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Nb段ij = digo = I say                              Xinb段ij = dije = I said                          Xtinb段ij na = dir = I will say

Nab段ij = dices = you say                      Xab段ij = dijiste = you said             Xtab段ij na = dir疽 = you will say

Nb段ij = dice = he says                            Xb段ij = dijo = he said                        Xtib段ij na = dir = he will say

Nab段ij = decimos = we say                   Xqab段ij = dijimos = we said          Xtiqab段ij na = diremos = we will say

Neb段ij = dicen = you say                      Xeb段ij = dijeron = you said           Xteb段ij na = dir疣 = you will say

Nkib段ij = dicen = they say                    Xkib段ij = dijeron = they said         Xtikib段ij na = dir疣 = they will say

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninwari = duermo = I am sleeping      Xinwari = dorm = I slept    Xkinwar na = dormir = I will sleep

Natwari = duermes = you are asleep   Xatwari = dormiste = you slept     Xkatwar na = dormir疽 = you will sleep

Nwari = duerme = he is asleep               Xwari = durmi = he slept               Xtiwar na = dormir = he will sleep

Noqwari = dormimos = we are asleep  Xoqwari = dormimos = we slept   Xkojwar na = dormiremos = we will sleep

Nixwari = duermen = you are asleep    Xixwari = durmieron = you slept  Xkixwar na = dormir疣 = you will sleep

Newari = duermen = they are asleep     Xewari = durmieron = they slept  Xkewar na = dormir疣 = they will sleep

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninxajowi = bailo = I dance                Xinxajowi = baile = I danced                    Xkinxajo na = bailar = I will dance

Natxajowi = bailas = you dance          Xatxajowi = bailaste = you danced     Xkatxajo na = bailar疽 = you will dance

Nxajowi = baile = he dance                     Xajowi = bailo = he danced                   Xtixajo na = bailar = he will dance

Nojxajowi = bailamos = we dance       Xojxajowi = bailamos = we danced    Xkojxajo na = bailaremos = we will dance

Nix遅ajowi = bailan = you dance         Xix遅ajowi = bailaron = you danced   Xkix遅ajo na = bailar疣 = you will dance

Nexajowi = bailan = they dance           Xexajowi = bailaron = they danced     Xkexajo na = bailar疣 = they will dance

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninqajooni = presto = I lend            Xinqajooni = prest = I lent      Xkinqajon na = prestar = I will lend

Natqajooni = prestas = you lend      Xatqajooni = prestaste = you lent     Xkatqajon na = prestar疽 = you will lend

Nqajooni = presta = he lends            Xqajooni = prest = he lent               Xtiqajon na = prestar = he will lend

Nojqajooni = prestamos = we lend   Xojqajooni = prestamos = we lent     Xkojqajon na = prestaremos = we will lend

Nixqajooni = prestan = you lend      Xixqajooni = prestaron = you lent     Xkixqajon na = prestar疣 = you will lend

Neqajooni = prestan = they lend       Xeqajooni = prestaron = they lent     Xkeqajon na = prestar疣 = they will lend

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Nink誕m to = traigo = I bring           Xink誕m to = traj = I brought               Xtink誕m to na = traer = I will bring

Natk誕m to = traes = you bring        Xak誕m to = trajiste = you brought        Xtak誕m to na = traer疽 = you will bring

Nk誕m to = trae = he brings             Xk誕m to = traj = he brought                Xtik誕m to na = traer = he will bring

Nqak誕m to = traemos = we bring   Xqak誕m to = trajimos = we brought     Xtiqak誕m to na = traeremos = we will bring

Nek誕m to = traen = you bring         Xek誕m to = trajeron = you brought      Xtek誕m to na = traer疣 = you will bring

Nekek誕m to = traen = they bring    Xkek誕m to = trajeron = they brought   Xtikek誕m to na = traer疣 = they will bring

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninloq弛oni = compro = I am buying             Xinloq弛oni = compr = I bought                            Xkinloq弛n na = comprar = I will buy

Natloq弛oni = compras = you are buying       Xatloq弛oni = compraste = you bought    Xkatloq弛n na = comprar疽 = you will buy

Nloq弛oni = compra = he is buying               Xloq弛oni = compr = he bought              Xtiloq弛n na = comprar = he will buy

Nojloq弛oni = compramos = we are buying   Xojloq弛oni = compramos = we bought    Xkojloq弛n na = compraremos = we will buy

Nixloq弛oni = compran = you are buying      Xixloq弛oni = compraron = you bought    Xkixloq弛n na = comprar疣 = you will buy

Neloq弛oni = compran = they are buying      Xeloq弛oni = compraron = they bought     Xkeloq弛n na = comprar疣 = they will buy

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninatiini = me bao = I bathe                  Xinatiini = me ba = I bathed           Xkinatin na = me baar = I will bathe

Natatiini = te baas = you bathe              Xatatiini = te baaste = you bathed      Xkatatin na = te baar疽 = you will bathe

Natiini = se baa = he bathes                   Xatiini = se ba = he bathed                Xti[atin na = se baar = he will bathe

Nojatiini = nos baamos = we bathe        Xojatiini = nos baamos = we bathed   Xkojatin na = nos baaremos = we will bathe

Nixatiini = se baan = you bathe              Xixatiini = se baaron = you bathed     Xkixatin na = se baar疣 = you will bathe

Neatiini = se baan = they bathe              Xeatiini = se baaron = they bathed      Xkeatin na = se baar疣 = they will bathe

 

Present                                                     Preterite                                  Future                                             

Ninooq段 = lloro = I cry                     Xinooq段 = llor = I cried         Xkinoq na = llorar = I will cry

Natooq段 = lloras = you cry               Xatooq段 = lloraste = you cried       Xkatoq na = llorar疽 = you will cry

Nooq段 = llora = he cries                    Xooq段 = llor = he cried                 Xti弛q na = llorar = he will cry

Nojooq段 = lloramos = we cry           Xoqooq段 = lloramos = we cried     Xkojoq na = lloraremos = we will cry

Nixooq段 = lloran = you cry               Xixooq段 = lloraron = you cried      Xkixoq na = llorar疣 = you will cry

Ne弛oq段 = lloran = they cry              Xe弛oq段 = lloraron = they cried      Xke弛q na = llorar疣 = they will cry

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninsamaji = trabajo = I am working           Xinsamaji = trabaj = I worked            Xkinsamaj na = trabajar = I will work

Natsamaji = trabajas = you are working     Xatsamaji = trabajaste = you worked   Xkatsamaj na = trabajar疽 = you will work

Nsamaji = trabaja = he is working               Xsamaji = trabaj = he worked             Xkesamaj na = trabajar = he will work

Nojsamaji = trabajamos = we are working Xojsamaji = trabajamos = we worked  Xkojsamaj na = trabajaremos = we will work

Nixsamaji = trabajan = you are working     Xixsamaji = trabajaron = you worked  Xkixsamaj na = trabajar疣 = you will work

Nesamaji = trabajan = they are working      Xesamaji = trabajaron = they worked  Xkesamaj na = trabajar疣 = they will work

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninb段ini = camino = I am walking              Xinb段ini = camin = I walked             Xkinb段in na = caminar = I will walk

Natb段ini = caminas = you are walking        Xatb段ini = caminaste = you walked     Xkatb段in na = caminar疽 = you will walk

Nb段ini = camina = he is walking                 Xb段ini = camin = he walked               Xtib段in na = caminar = he will walk

Nojb段ini = caminamos = we are walking     Xojb段ini = caminamos = we walked    Xkojb段in na = caminaremos = we will walk

Nixb段ini = caminan = you are walking        Xixb段ini = caminaron = you walked    Xkixb段in na = caminar疣 = you will walk

Neb段ini = caminan = they are walking         Xeb段ini = caminaron = they walked    Xkeb段in na = caminar疣 = they will walk

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninmeloji = regreso = I return                Xinmeloji = regres = I returned              Xkinmeloj na = regresar = I will return

Natmeloji = regresas = you return          Xatmeloji = regresaste = you returned       Xkatmeloj na = regresar疽 = you will return

Nmeloji = regresa = he returns               Xmeloji = regres = he returned                  Xtimeloj na = regresar = he will return

Nojmeloji = regresamos = we return      Xojmeloji = regresamos = we returned       Xkojmeloj na = regresaremos = we will return

Nixmeloji = regresan = you return         Xixmeloji = regresaron = you returned       Xkixmeloj na = regresar疣 = you will return

Nemeloji = regresan = they return         Xemeloji = regresaron = they returned        Xkemeloj na = regresar疣 = they will return

 

Present                                                         Preterite                                             Future                                                    

Ninmesooni = barro = I sweep              Xinmesooni = barr = I swept              Xkinmeson na = barrer = I will sweep

Natmesooni = barres = you sweep        Xatmesooni = barriste = you swept        Xkatmeson na = barrer疽 = you will sweep

Nmesooni = barre = he sweeps              Xmesooni = barri = he swept                Xtimeson na = barrer = he will sweep

Noqmesooni = barremos = we sweep    Xoqmesooni = barremos = we swept      Xkomeson na = barreremos = we will sweep

Nixmesooni = barren = you sweep        Xixmesooni= barrieron = you swept       Xkixmeson na = barrer疣 = they will sweep

Nemesooni = barren = they sweep        Xemesooni = barrieron = you swept        Xkemeson na = barrer疣 = they will sweep

 

Adjectives (Adjetivos)

 

         Aal [awl] pesado = heavy [hev ēē]

         Ach段馳 [awch- ēē-] duro = hard [hard]

         Ajninaq [ah nēēn ock] = r疳ido = fast [fast]

         B弛lob段k [b- ōle ōb- ēēk] = cylindrico = cylindrical [sil end rik ul]

         Ch誕ap [ch- op] / Tz段it [dz- eat] = poco = a little, a bit [āā lit ul, āā bit]

         Ch誕b誕q [ch- awb- awk] = lodo = mud [mud]

         Ch誕b誕q [ch- awb- awk] = mojado = wet [wet]

         Ch誕jch弛j [ch- awch- ōh] = limpio = clean, neat [klēēn, nēēt]

         Chak誕chik [chawk- aw chēēk] = delgado = skinny [skin ēē]

         Ch誕m [ch- ahm] = 當ido = sour [sow ur]

         Chaq [chalk-] = gordo = fat [fat]

         Chaqiij [chalk ēēh] = seco = dry [dray]

         Choom [chōhm] = gordo = fat [fat]

         Choq誕aq [chōhq- awk-] = fuerte = strong [strong]

         Ch置ch置j [ch- ooch- ew] = suave = soft [soft]

         Chuw [choof] = apestoso = smelly [smel ēē]

         Eqaal [eh kawl] = despacio = slow [slōh]

         Itzeel [eats el] = feo, malo = ugly, bad [ug  lēē, bad]

         Jab弾l [hawb- el] = bonito = pretty [pret ēē]

         Jiik [hēēk] = recto = straight [straat]

         K誕ak誕 [k- awk- ah] = nuevo = new [nuu]

         K誕y [k- eye] = amargo = bitter [bit ur]

         Ki [kēē-] = dulce, sabroso = sweet, tasty [sweet, tāāst ēē]

         Ko値i [kōh- lee] = pequeo = small [smal]

         K弛lok段k [k- ole oak- ēēk] = esferico = spherical [sfer ik ul]

         Kow [kōaf] = duro = hard [hard]

         Kut [koot] = corto = short [short]

         Lokolik [lo coal ēēk] = torcido = twisted [twist ed]

         Maxko [mosh ko] = mucho = much [much]

         Muuj [mooh] = sombreado = shady [shāā dēē]

         Na弛j [naw ōh] = inteligente = intelligent [en tel itch ent]

         Nim [nēēm] = grande = large, big [larj, big]

         Nim [nēēm] = alto = tall [tawl]

         Nim raqan [nēēm rawk awn] = tall (persona) = tall (person) [tawl]

         Nimalaj [nēēm aw lawh] = muy grande = very large, very big [ver ēē larj, ver ēē big]

         Nimako値 [nēēm awk ōh- l] = mediano = medium [mēēd ēē um]

         Nojnaq [know knock] = lleno = full [full]

         Pa恥ik [paw- pēēk] = vertical = vertical [vur tik ul]

         Ponopik [pown ōh pēēk] = inflado = inflated [in flāāt ed]

         Qas [kaws] = muy = very [ver ēē]

         Q弾q段k [q- eq- ēēk] = inclinado = slanted [slant ed]

         Rob誕rik [robe- are ēēk] = ovalado = oval [ōh vul]

         Saq [sawk] = limpio = clean, neat [klēēn, nēēt]

         Setesik [set es ēēk] = redondo = round [rownd]

         Sik- [sēēk-] = ruidoso = noisy [noy sēē]

         Sipojik [sip ōh hēēk] = hinchado = swollen [swōh len]

         Talani [tall awn ēē] = vacio = empty [emp tēē]

         Tikitik [tēēk ēē tēēk] = escarpado (bajando) = steep (going down) [stēēp]

         Tikoli [tik ōh lēē] = muy pequeno = very small [ver ēē smawl]

         Tino馳 [tin ōh- yēē] = pequeno = small [smawl]

         Tz段il [dz- ēēl] = sucio = dirty [durt ēē]

         Tzalatzik [dz- all aw dzēēk] = inclinado = slanted [slant ed]

         Tz誕ratz段k [dz- are rods- ēēk] = aplastado = flattened [flat tend]

         Utz [ootz] = bueno, bien, amable = good, well, friendly [gud, wel, frind lēē]

         Wuq置b段k [wooq- oob- ēēk] = d饕il = weak [wēēk]

         Yuquyik [yoo koo yēēk] = alargado = elongated [ēē long āāt ed]

         Yux [yoosh] = d饕il = weak [wēēk]

 

Prepositions/Conjunctions/Adverbs (Preposicines/Conjuncines/Adverbios)

 

         Aaq誕 [alk- ah-] = noche = night [night]

         Achib段l [awtch ēēb- ēēl] = accompanado, con = accompanied with, with [ak omp an ēēd with]

         Ajninaq [ah nēēn awk] = r疳ido = fast [fast]

         Aq誕b段il [alk- awb- ēēl] = maana = morning [morn ēēng]

         Chajniim [chah nēēm] = r疳ido = fast [fast]

         Chaqajalaal [chawk aw hall all] = de repente = suddenly [sud en lēē]

         Chi [chēē] = de, alrededor = of, around [uv, ar ownd]

         Chi kaaj [chēē kaw] = arriba, cielo = upwards, sky [up wurds, skay]

         Chi la [chēē law-] = all/por all (lejos) = there, that way (far) [ther, that wāi]

         Chi le [chēē lay-] = all/por all = there, that way [ther, that wāi]

         Chuwaaq [chew ock] = maana = tomorrow [toom ar ōh]

         Ejqaal [eh kawl] = despacio = slowly [slō lēē]

         Ikem [ēē kem] = abajo = under [und ur]

         Iiwiir [ēē we池e] = ayer = yesterday [yes tur dāāy]

         K誕 [k-aw] = hasta, desde, pues = until, since, well [unt il, sins, wel]

         Kaamiik [kaw mēēk] = hoy = today [too dāi]

         Kee la [key law-] = all/por all (lejos) = there, that way (far) [ther, that wāi]

         Kee wa ri [key wah rēē] = all/por all = there, that way [ther, that wāi]

         K段n [k- ēēn] = y = and [and]

         K段y [k- ēē] = mucho = much [mach]

         Mariil [mar ēēl] = apenas = barely [bar lēē]

         Naqaaj [gnaw kaw] = cerca = near [ney ur]

         Naat [not] = lejos = far [far]

         Nik誕jq段ij [nēēk- alk- ēēh] = medio da = noon [noon]

         Owi [ōh wē] = o = or [or]

         Pa [paw] = dentro = inside [en siid]

         Ri [rēē-] = cercano = near, nearby [ner, ner bay]

         Taqajq段ij [tock alk- ēēh] = tarde = afternoon [af tur noon]

         Taqaan [tock awn] = tal vez = perhaps [pur haps]

         Ti [tēē] = ito (diminutivo) = y (diminutive) [ēē]

         Tz段it [tz- eat] = poco = a bit [a bit]

         Wiij [wēēh- = atr疽 = behind [bēē haynd]

         Xaxa [shaw shaw] = (desvalor) = pshaw, whatever [pshaw, wat ev ur]

         Xee [shay-] = abajo = below [bēē lōō]

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